Monday, December 31, 2012

iPhone and iPad Application Development: Applications and Designs Suiting the Modern Business

Nowadays, mobile sets are not a medium of telecommunication, but have become one of the potential tools having additional functionalities. Customized iphone Application can be developed using iPhone SDK platform. This has greatly improved the performance of iPhones. iPhone OS is the most powerful & advanced mobile operating system for developing powerful iPhone applications.

There are many firms which are involved in making iPhone Applications to make them customized iPhones. Advanced mobile applications provide the users with a number of friendly applications suiting the modern business requirements and satisfying them to the optimum extent. With leveraging technology, the expert developers make innovative iPhone applications that connect the idea to business. With sophisticated iPhone Application Development tools we can create world-class applications and design optimized web sites for iPhone. iPhone Mobile Application Development include iPhone Web Application Development, iPhone Business Development, iPhone Games Development, iPhone SDK Development, iPhone Social Networking Development and iPhone CMS Development. They successfully completed the industry projects within the defined time limits with their proven efficiency.

They tend to build the world's most innovative mobile operating system with easy user-interface design and develop scalable iPhone applications. iPhone Application Development that proves to be a big success to the users with a fine set of feasible solutions & latest applications.

iPad has proved as a revolutionary device which has launched in the mobile market. It is re-named as the larger version of iPhone as it has a wide look of the multi-touch screen. This screen gives its users, huge display of the features and applications turning it to an exclusive new device. The in-built apps of ipad give to users. iPad Application Development has been a brilliant invention. It supports a lot many new applications and works just the same as a modern desktop computer. The users get the wide touch screen while it takes the concept of computer to next level.

Different applications are made using the distinctive features of iPad are:

iPad Games Applications Development

iPad Multimedia Applications Development

iPad Travel Applications Development

iPad Utility Applications Development

iPad Entertainment Applications Development

iPad E-Books Application Development

iPad Social Networking Application Development

iPad's talented developers extend it's application architecture and built a complete user-friendly application for the ease of users. It comes with simple and quick business applications with huge number of technical apps. As iPad is a target for apps starting from desktop applications to iPhone applications, the developers design highly creative iPad applications with the changing needs of audience. iPad Application developers have profound experience in making apps related to various fields such as business, entertainment, games, web connectivity, email, ebooks, publishing videos, etc.

Along with iPhone Application & iPad Application Development, the application development companies also make BlackBerry Application Development, Symbain Application Development, Windows Mobile Application Development, J2ME based Mobile Application Development and Android Application Developer . All these mobile are also built with new applications from simple application level to complex application levels. By receiving the best and topmost quality apps, users get excellent applications to explore through various devices.

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Sunday, December 30, 2012

Hire iPad Application Developers for Adding up more

Using the technology is easy, but using it in own way for meeting your desire is complex. Don't go far; you can get this instance by giving a thought to the latest lure of modern times.

Using the latest iPad is very easy, but when it comes to development of desired iPad application that can materialize your needs easily, then it feels like cracking nuts. Well, solution is always there for any problem such as Hire iPad application developer is a best option, which can ease or shape the things, the way you like. Just tell your iPad application developer about your imagination, he will cast your needs into fully functional, attractive, ready to use iPad application. Hiring this technological expert for custom iPad application development is easiest way to get rid of all your technical and non technical worries about this latest hand-held device introduced by Apple Inc.

Hire iPad application developer for development of robust iPad application that can increase the fun & usability of iPad. This modern device is already a multi featured device that allows you to browse the internet at lightning speed, email management (sending & receiving, reading), reading e-books, listening to music, map based navigation, watching videos, photo visualizing with high clarity and most attractive feature of playing games on 9.7 inch widescreen. In the modern times of technology, imagination that goes beyond the existing or available, also can be fulfilled easily with hard work and expertise. Just before iPad, Apple Inc. had provided to modern masses a successful device called iPhone. The always active developers / programmers & designers for iPhone application development had learned a lot about mobile technology and other hi-tech devices. Fortunately, this technical knowledge & expertise is getting refined again in iPad app lication development, which is definitely going to produce high quality results.

The iPad application developers all over the world are relaxed & capable of developing different iPad applications for their clients easily. This relaxation is provided by Apple Inc. by providing with them the same SDK (software development kit) of iPhone to utilize for developing iPad applications. Programming for iPad application development is almost the same except few advance changes that can be easily deploy by the professionals. A professional Hired iPad application developer can develop a wide range of iPad applications in many areas such as lifestyle applications, games applications, business applications, education & learning applications, travel applications, music applications health & fitness applications and many more to integrate in iPad. According to an experienced mobile industry specialist "Independent dedication of an individual can produce amazing results and this statement can be exemplified with Hire iPad application devel oper."

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Saturday, December 29, 2012

Give a unique touch with iPad application development

Apple has always been a great company which is working as a trend setter and front runner in the technology development. Apple has launched many revolutionary products such as iPod, iPhone, iPad, etc. In those, iPad is a wireless tablet computer which comes with amazing features and functionalities. Its touch-screen sensitivity, virtual keyboard, picture clarity, low weight, instant internet connectivity and several other easy-to-use features make it an ideal gadget for anyone. Numerous applications of iPhones are also available for iPad users and specific applications are also developing by different iPad app development companies day by day.

Success of iPhone and other category smart phones are also fastening the demands of the new applications and because of that the iPad developed a huge market for its application development since its launch. The proof is around 225000 iPad applications were developed till the date.

The reason behind this is iPad has been sold like a hot products and it has crossed the mark of 4 billions. iPad satisfies general requirements like sending and receiving email, but by upgrading with a few applications it turns in to a quality a cooking book, a phone, an ebook-reader, a video game, a music or video player, etc.

Many applications were already created for iPhone which can be useful in iPad, but strong needs for specific application developments are there through which the users can utilize the full features offered by iPad.
Several applications are available for the iPad, but as the popularity increased the demand is also built up for specific applications. As an effect, iPad app development has become needs for its users and thus iPad app development companies also incorporating the new developments for iPad.

The best thing in iPad is its support of third party applications and also Apple has launched an innovative platform to develop its applications for the developer's communities. That is why the iPad application development has become important services in today's world. Another reason is the platform provides the great possibilities to increase credibility and thereby can customize it to get proper use of it. Thus, these kinds of application development services can help you to generate more useful and customized applications as per your business needs to step up your business to the next level. So if you are thinking about this kind of application developments then you sh ould consider dedicated iPad app developers for hire.

iPad app developer can offers development services in all areas of user requirements such as business, multimedia, information, games, weather, music, videos, radio, education, GPS, travelling, social networking, finance, reality etc. All these iPad app development can help iPad users in various kinds of tasks they have to do.

iPad application developer helps businesses in a good way because it is directly connected to the consumers through the internet. With these kinds of applications one can stay connected to the customers and can do business any time of the day. All these happens because iPad provides an amazing surfing experience with fully operated touch screen, user friendly interface, crystallize graphic support and lot other features.

If you have a better idea then it is not only helps in business but can earn profit for you. In order to that, you can go for iPad app developers fo r hire to create unique application, market them and sell them to earn money. The iPad app developer can develop an application at affordable cost without any hassle.
So if you are interested in these kinds of benefits through the high quality iPad application development, hire a skilled iPad application developer to look over your business requirements. Their complete knowledge creates powerful and unique business iPad applications. iPad applications developer has an expert team of developers that take up all the challenges with their creativity to build up applications for both individual and organization purpose and develop applications that fit with your needs.

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Friday, December 28, 2012

Call of Duty

Main series
Call of Duty
Main article: Call of Duty (video game)
Call of Duty is a first-person shooter video game based on the Quake III Arena engine (id Tech 3), and was released on October 29, 2003. The game was developed by Infinity Ward and published by Activision. The game simulates the infantry and combined arms warfare of World War II. Call of Duty was accompanied in September 2004 by an expansion pack, Call of Duty: United Offensive, which was also produced by Activision, but developed by Gray Matter Interactive with contributions from Pi Studios. The Mac OS X version of the game was ported by Aspyr Media. In late 2004, the N-Gage version was developed by Nokia and published by Activision. Other versions were released for PC, including Collector's Edition (with soundtrack and strategy guide), Game of the Year Edition (includes game updates), and the Deluxe Edition (which contains the United Offensive expansion and soundtrack; in Europe the soundtrack was not included). Since November 12, 2007, Call of Duty and its sequels ha ve been available for purchase via Valve's content delivery platform, Steam.
Call of Duty 2
Main article: Call of Duty 2
Call of Duty 2 is a first-person shooter video game and sequel to the critically acclaimed game Call of Duty. It was developed by Infinity Ward and published by Activision. The game is set during World War II and is experienced through the perspectives of three soldiers in the Red Army, British Army and United States Army. It was released on October 25, 2005 for PC, June 13, 2006 for Mac OS X and November 15, 2005 for the Xbox 360. Other versions were made for mobile phones, Pocket PCs, and Smartphones.
Call of Duty 3
Main article: Call of Duty 3
Call of Duty 3 is a World War II first-person shooter and the third installment in the Call of Duty video game series. The game was developed by Treyarch, and was the first major installment in the Call of Duty series not to be developed by Infinity Ward. It was released on the PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, Wii, Xbox, and Xbox 360. Call of Duty 3 is the only numerical sequel to date to have been a console-exclusive game alongside its side-story games like Call of Duty 2: Big Red One and Call of Duty: Finest Hour before it. It was released on November 7, 2006.
Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare
Main article: Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare
Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare is the fourth installment of the main series, and was developed by Infinity Ward. It is the first game in the series not to be set during World War II, as well as the first to receive a Mature rating from the ESRB (except for the Nintendo DS version, which was rated Teen). The game was released for Microsoft Windows, Nintendo DS, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360 on November 7, 2007. Download and retail versions for Mac OS X were released by Aspyr in September 2008. As of May 2009, Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare has sold over 13 million copies, making it the most successful game in the series.
A Wii port of the game, titled Call of Duty: Modern Warfare: Reflex, handled by Treyarch, was released on November 10, 2009, alongside Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare: Mobilized.
Call of Duty: World at War
Main article: Call of Duty: World at War
Call of Duty: World at War developed by Treyarch is the fifth installment of the main series, and returns to the World War II setting of earlier titles. On June 9, 2008, it was confirmed that the game would be titled Call of Duty: World at War and would be set in the Pacific theater and Eastern front of World War II. The game uses the same proprietary game engine as Call of Duty 4. Call of Duty: World at War was released for the PC, PS3, Wii, Xbox 360 consoles and the Nintendo DS handheld in North America on November 11, 2008, and November 14, 2008 in Europe. As of June 2009, Call of Duty: World at War has sold over 11 million copies.
Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2
Main article: Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2
Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 has been developed by Infinity Ward and published by Activision. Activision Blizzard officially announced Modern Warfare 2 on February 11, 2009. The game was released worldwide on November 10, 2009, for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Windows. A Nintendo DS iteration of the game, titled Call of Duty: Modern Warfare: Mobilized, was released alongside the game and the Wii port of Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare. Modern Warfare 2 is the direct sequel to Call of Duty 4 and continues the same storyline, taking place five years after the first game and featuring several returning characters.
Upcoming games
Call of Duty 7
Call of Duty 7 (working title) was leaked as being in production when David Kim, a senior animator at Treyarch, stated on a website "I am currently on my second title as a senior animator in the games industry with Activision / Treyarch on Call of Duty 7." The game is rumored to be set during the Vietnam War. Activision later confirmed that developer Treyarch was working on the next Call of Duty installment, set for release in Autumn of 2010. Call of Duty (2011)
Activision announced an unnamed Call of Duty game will be released sometime in 2011. The game's developer was not specified. No other details were made available by Activision.
Call of Duty (Sledgehammer Games)
An unnamed Call of Duty game is under development by Activision studio Sledgehammer Games; no release date has been announced. The game will reportedly "extend the franchise into the action-adventure genre". No other details were made available by Activision.
Call of Duty: United Offensive
Main article: Call of Duty: United Offensive
Call of Duty: United Offensive is an expansion pack for the popular first-person shooter computer game, Call of Duty and is set chiefly at Bastogne, Belgium, during the Battle of the Bulge. The game was developed by Gray Matter Interactive, with contributions from Pi Studios, and published by Activision. It was released for Microsoft Windows on September 14, 2004.
Console and handheld games
Call of Duty: Finest Hour
Main article: Call of Duty: Finest Hour
Call of Duty: Finest Hour is the first console installment of Call of Duty, and was released on the Nintendo GameCube, PlayStation 2, and Xbox. The PlayStation 2 and Xbox versions of the game include an online multiplayer mode which supports up to 32 players.
Call of Duty 2: Big Red One
Main article: Call of Duty 2: Big Red One
Call of Duty 2: Big Red One is a console version of Call of Duty 2 developed by Treyarch, and based on the American 1st Infantry Division's exploits during World War II. The game was released on Nintendo GameCube, PlayStation 2, and Xbox.
Call of Duty: Roads to Victory
Main article: Call of Duty: Roads to Victory
A PSP game that was based on "Call of Duty 3". This game did not feature online infastructure multiplayer, making the game very different from the original.
Call of Duty: World at War: Final Fronts
Main article: Call of Duty: World at War: Final Fronts
Call of Duty: World at War: Final Fronts is the PlayStation 2 adaptation of Call of Duty: World at War. Developed by Rebellion Developments, Final Fronts features three campaigns involving the U.S. fighting in the Pacific theater and the Battle of the Bulge in Europe, as well as the British advancing on the Rhine River into Germany.
Call of Duty: Modern Warfare: Mobilized
Main article: Call of Duty: Modern Warfare: Mobilized
Call of Duty: Modern Warfare: Mobilized is the Nintendo DS companion game for Modern Warfare 2. Developed by n-Space, the game takes place in the same setting as the main console game, but follows a different storyline and cast of characters. Including the secret missions of the S.A.S. and the Marines, they continue over to the Mountains of Venezuela, to retrieve an atomic device from there. But the opposing forces get in the way and twist the missions. New weapons like a SPAS and old favorites like the AK-47 and the M4A1. The catch is that the game is short in one way, the missions conclude too fast, it may last longer if you play in Hardened mode.
Call of Duty: World at War: Zombies
Main article: Call of Duty: World at War: Zombies
Call of Duty: World at War: Zombies is a first-person shooter video game developed by Ideaworks Game Studio, and published by Activision for the iPhone OS. It is a spin-off of the Call of Duty series, and based on the "Nazi Zombies" mode of Call of Duty: World at War.
Other media
Further information: List of Call of Duty media
Modern Warfare 2: Ghost
Main article: Modern Warfare 2: Ghost
Modern Warfare 2: Ghost is a six-part comic book mini-series based on a character in Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. Announced by Robert Bowling on August 17, 2009, the storyline focuses on the backstory of the character Ghost, who appears in the video game. The series is published by WildStorm and the first issue was released on November 10, 2009, alongside the game.
The Call of Duty Real-time Card Game was announced by card manufacturer Upper Deck.
In 2004, Activision, in cooperation with the companies Plan-B Toys and Radioactive Clown, released the "Call of Duty: Series 1" line of action figures, which included three American soldiers and three German soldiers from the World War II era. While the American G.I. action figure was made in 2004, Plan-B Toys later discontinued a controversial Nazi SS Guard action figure based on the Nazi Totenkopf officer seen in the Call of Duty video game.
In 2008, McFarlane Toys announced their partnership with Activision to produce action figures for the Call of Duty video game series. McFarlane Toys' first series of action figures were released in October 2008 and consists of four different figures: Marine with Flamethrower, Marine Infantry, British Special Ops, and Marine with Machine Gun.
Call of Duty Endowment
The Call of Duty Endowment (CODE) is a non-profit foundation created by Activision Blizzard to help find employment for U.S. military veterans. The foundation will contribute $1 million to several veteran support organizations. The first donation, consisting of $125,000, was presented to the Paralyzed Veterans of America.
^ "Call Of Duty series tops 55 million sales". MCV. 2009-11-27. Retrieved 2009-11-27.
^ Gamespot - Call of Duty Retrieved on September 23, 2007
^ "Activision Adds GUN, Call of Duty to Steam". Retrieved 2007-10-18.
^ New Call of Duty skipping PC - Xbox 360 News at GameSpot
^ Breckon, Nick (2009-05-07). "Call of Duty 4 Sales Pass 13 Million Mark". Shacknews.
^ McWhertor, Michael (2009-08-04). "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare Comes To Wii This November". Kotaku. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
^ Call of Duty: World at War - first details in OXM
^ McWhertor, Michael (2009-06-15). "Call of Duty: World At War Tops 11 Million". Kotaku.
^ a b "Modern Warfare 2 Coming November 10, 2009". Activision Publishing, Inc.. 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
^ Infinity Ward enlisted for Call of Duty 6
^ Ocampo, Jason (2009-02-11). "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 This Holiday". IGN. Retrieved 2009-02-11.
^ Activision Announces uitar Hero 5, New ony Hawk, all of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, More At In-Game Ad Conference
^ "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare: Mobilized in Development for Nintendo DS". IGN. 2009-08-03. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
^ "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare Coming to Wii". IGN. 2009-08-05. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
^ Thorsen, Tor (2009-05-12). "First Modern Warfare 2 details emerge". GameSpot.;img;1. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ Ahearn, Nate (2009-05-13). "Treyarch Working on Call of Duty7". IGN. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
^ | Destructoid - Rumor: call of Duty 7: Vietnam
^ New Call of Duty Title Announced - IGN
^ New Call of Duty Title Announced - IGN
^ Sledgehammer Games Not Developing 2011 Call of Duty
^ Sledgehammer Games Not Developing 2011 Call of Duty
^ McElroy, Griffin (2009-08-17). "Wildstorm publishing Modern Warfare 2 comic mini-series (update)". Joystiq. Retrieved 2009-08-17.
^ "Call of Duty Card Game". Upper Deck.
^ "Activision, Plan-B Toys, Radioactive Clown Enlist for "Call of Duty"". GameZone. 2004-04-06. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
^ Cunningham, James (2004-09-24). "TNL Show and Tell: Call of Duty Action Figure". The Next Level. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
^ "Call of Duty Nazi action figure discontinued". Kotaku. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
^ "MacFarlane Toys Call of Duty Action Figures at". Retrieved 2008-12-30.
External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Call of Duty
Call of Duty official website
The Call of Duty Wiki at Wikia
Call of Duty series
Main series
Call of Duty (United Offensive) Call of Duty 2 Call of Duty 3 4: Modern Warfare (DS) World at War (DS) Modern Warfare 2 (Mobilized) Call of Duty 7
Related games
Finest Hour 2: Big Red One Roads to Victory World at War: Final Fronts World at War: Zombies
Other articles
Modern Warfare 2: Ghost Controversies surrounding Modern Warfare 2
List of media Category
Categories: Activision games | Call of Duty series | First-person shooters | Third-person shooters | Multiplayer online games | World War II video gamesHidden categories: Wikipedia semi-protected pages

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Thursday, December 27, 2012

How To Convert Flip Video To Apple Tv On Mac?

Free download Mac flip video to Apple TV converter to convert flip video footages to Apple TV video H.264 720X480 (MP4), Apple TV video MPEG-4 512X384 (MP4), Apple TV video MPEG-4 720x432 (MP4) for playing on Apple TV. Flip video to Apple TV Mac converter has installed numerous codec provided for various Apple products, Apple TV, iPod, iPhone and differed editing tools, iMovie, Final Cut Pro, Final Cut Express.

The main features of Apple TV?

Apple TV gives you access to an easy-to-navigate world of entertainment. Rent HD movies. Buy HD movies and get iTunes Extras. Buy HD TV shows. Listen to your iTunes music and Internet radio. Even show off your photos. Connect one HDMI cable and, just like that, your TV becomes more than just a TV. Therefore, Apple TV becomes more and more popular in the world.

Free download here for your professional evaluation!

During the process of converting flip video to Apple TV, what's the main problem?

Sometimes, you may have the right formats after converting but you still cannot import videos into Apple TV. Why? For one thing, you do not have proper codec to compress the formats, for another, you do not have right screen size and resolution parameters.

With Mac flip video to Apple TV converter, neither issue will exist anymore for its built in codec and advanced settings. You may define the appropriate video Encoder, Resolution, Frame Rare, Bit Rate and audio Encoder, Sample Rate, Channel, Bite Rate to fit for different playing definitions in the process of converting!
Mac OS program flip video to Apple TV converter supports to input all popular formats for converting MP4, AVI, WMV, MOV, FLV, SEF, MKV, MPG, 3GP ,DV to Apple TV for importing into iPod, iPhone, PSP, Creative Zen, Wii, iRiver, BlackBerry, Gphone and Nexus One. Flip video to Apple TV Mac converter can easily rip audio from videos for your preference and save them as MP3, M4A, MKA, WMA, AIFF, FLAC, AAC, AC3, AMR.

Converting flip video to Apple TV with powerful editing features to play video files on Apple TV/iPod/iPhone on snow leopard X10.6.

1. Supported video input:

2. Support audio input:

3. Support portable device:
iPod, iPod touch, iPhone, PSP, Creative Zen, Wii, iRiver, BlackBerry, Gphone?Nexus One.

4. Join files:
Combine several files into one

5. Take snapshot:
Capture favored images in JPG, BMP and PNG formats

6. Defines video setting:
Encoder, Bite Rite, Frame Rate, Resolution

7. Crop:
Cut off unnecessary objects and subtitles

8. Trim:
Clip time length video segments

9. Add effects:
Select Brightness, Contrast, Saturation

10. Rotate videos:
Flip videos upside down and left to right

Mac flip video to Apple TV converter has no problem to run on the Intel-based Mac version and Power PC-based Mac version. No virus and pop-ups attached!

Learn to convert flip video to Apple TV with Mac flip video to Apple TV converter step by step

Step one: Connect flip video camcorder with you Mac and transfer flip videos onto Mac
Step two: Download flip video to Apple TV converter and install
Step three: Load flip videos into flip video to Apple TV Mac converter
Step four: Trim and edit flip videos
Step five: Select Apple TV output formats and output destination
Step six: Define advanced video Encoder, Resolution, Frame Rate and Bit Rate
Step seven: Start converting flip video to Apple TV

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Wednesday, December 26, 2012

Wondershare Apple TV Converter Suite for Windows Torrent

Support OS: Windows2000,Windows2003,WinXP,Windows Vista

The suite includes Wondershare DVD to Apple TV Ripper and Wondershare Video to Apple TV Converter. The Video to Apple TV Converter lets you easily and quickly convert all popular video formats like AVI, MPG, MPEG, DAT, WMV, MOV, RM, RMVB, ASF to Apple TV video (MP4 format). And theDVD to Apple TV Ripper helps you convert DVD to Apple TV movie with high quality and fast conversion speed.

Download click here

Support OS: Windows2000,Windows2003,WinXP,Windows Vista

The suite includes Wondershare DVD to Apple TV Ripper and Wondershare Video to Apple TV Converter. The Video to Apple TV Converter lets you easily and quickly convert all popular video formats like AVI, MPG, MPEG, DAT, WMV, MOV, RM, RMVB, ASF to Apple TV video (MP4 format). And theDVD to Apple TV Ripper helps you convert DVD to Apple TV movie with high quality and fast conversion speed.

Download click here

Support OS: Windows2000,Windows2003,WinXP,Windows Vista

The suite includes Wondershare DVD to Apple TV Ripper and Wondershare Video to Apple TV Converter. The Video to Apple TV Converter lets you easily and quickly convert all popular video formats like AVI, MPG, MPEG, DAT, WMV, MOV, RM, RMVB, ASF to Apple TV video (MP4 format). And theDVD to Apple TV Ripper helps you convert DVD to Apple TV movie with high quality and fast conversion speed.

Download click here

Support OS: Windows2000,Windows2003,WinXP,Windows Vista

The suite includes Wondershare DVD to Apple TV Ripper and Wondershare Video to Apple TV Converter. The Video to Apple TV Converter lets you easily and quickly convert all popular video formats like AVI, MPG, MPEG, DAT, WMV, MOV, RM, RMVB, ASF to Apple TV video (MP4 format). And theDVD to Apple TV Ripper helps you convert DVD to Apple TV movie with high quality and fast conversion speed.

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Tuesday, December 25, 2012

How to Convert and Stream AVI to Apple TV to Play AVI Files on Apple TV?

This article will explain why we failed to play AVI on Apple TV as well as introduce a step by step guide on how to convert AVI to Apple TV format for streaming and playing AVI on Apple TV. Moreover, this guide also applies to how to play AVI on iPhone/iPad/iPod/iTunes.

Why Failed to Stream AVI to Apple TV?

Though Apple TV can stream your video files from computers, it has video format limitation. It only support H.264 or MPEG-4 video format. If you attempt to sync unsupported video format like AVI to Apple TV, it will draw an error message from iTunes.

How to Successfully Stream and Play AVI on Apple TV?

In order to stream AVI video files to Apple TV successfully, we need to convert these AVI movies to a format compatible with iTunes and Apple TV. Bigasoft Total Video Converter is just the ideal AVI to Apple TV and iTunes converter. It can easily convert AVI to Apple TV compatible MP4 or H.264 format. Then it is just easy to stream the converted AVI to Apple TV for play AVI files on Apple TV.

Guide on How to Convert AVI to Apple TV Format for Streaming and Playing

The following will introduce a step by step guide on how to convert AVI to Apple TV supported format on Mac or Windows with the help of Bigasoft Total Video Converter. Then it is just easy to stream and play AVI on Apple TV 2 or Apple TV.

Make Preparation:Run Bigasoft Total Video Converter

Free download the professional AVI to Apple TV Converter - Bigasoft Total Video Converter (Mac Version, Windows Version), install and launch it, the following interface will pop up.

Step 1Add AVI video file

Click "Add File" button to import AVI video file. Or you can also drag your AVI file directly to the main interface of Bigasoft Total Video Converter.

Step 2Set Apple TV compatible video format

Click the drop-down button on the right side of the "Profile" to select Apple TV supported MPEG-4 Video (*.mp4) from "General Video" Category.

Step 3Convert AVI to Apple TV supported format

Click "Convert" button to finish converting AVI to Apple TV supported video format.

Stream and Play AVI Files on Apple TV

After finishing the AVI to Apple TV format conversion, just drag and drop the converted AVI to iTunes for streaming to Apple TV! Then it is just easy to play AVI on your widescreen Apple TV. Wait no more, just free download the powerful AVI to Apple TV conversion software to have a free try.

Moreover, this Total Video Converter also enables to convert AVI to iPhone/iPad/iPod video formats. It even can convert other video formats including MKV, MPEG, 3GP, WMV, FLV, MOD, TOD, WTV, WebM, F4V, BIK, M4B, 720p, 1080p, 1080i HD, Xvid, DivX, AVCHD to iTunes compatible video MP4, MOV, M4V.

Resources How to Play AVI on Apple TV 2 or Apple TV?

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Monday, December 24, 2012

How to get songs and videos from iPod, iPhone to Mac/iTunes for free

iTunes can help you sync music to your iPod or iPhone easily while it just don't allow you to transfer ipod music to iTunes or transfer iPhone videos to mac free. That makes it really annoying when you accidently delete your iTunes Library, have a hard disc reformat, or move iPod content from on computer to another. In these occasion, You need a third-party program to do the task and FreeSync is a totally free program that meets your needs.

How to transfer iPod/iPhone music and videos to iTunes on Mac

1.Launch iSkysoft FreeSync and then connect iPod or iPhone to Mac.

2.Click "Music" or "Movies" playlist and then tick the file you want to export.

Note: If you want Recover music and movies from iPod or iPhone to iTunes directly, SyncPod will meet your needs!

3.Click "iPod To Mac" to start transferring your music or movies file to your Mac.

4.Select a destination folder to save your iPod or iPhone content and click "OK"

Now you are ready to import Music or Movies to iTunes. Launch iTunes, and you can either drag the output folder of you iPod/iPhone content to the "Library" icon and let iTunes to classify your music and movies, or go to "File" pane and select "Add to Library" to navigate to output iPod/iPhone content and add it to iTunes.

Note: If you want to transfer iPod movies to mac free or transfer songs from iPhone to iTunes (iTunes 9 included), SyncPod will meet your needs! SyncPod supports iPhone 3GS, iPhone OS 3.0, iPod touch upgrade to 3.0, and the new iPods released on Apple "Rock and Roll" media event.

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Sunday, December 23, 2012

How to transfer music from windows media player to iTunes for free

Many of Windows computer users who have a new iPad want to know How to copy music from windows media player to iTunes.

In case the tracks you have got in your Windows Media Player library were usually stored in your My Music folder (or maybe Music in Windows Vista), it is easy to automatically transfer every thing directly into Apple iTunes in a few easy steps. For those who have songs saved in other directories besides the My Music directory, you might do it again exactly the same steps for any folder that has tunes you want to transfer. Follow the steps below to import your audio to iTunes:

Once opening iTunes, follow these steps:

1) Click File > Add Folder to Library and choose your My Music folder.

2) In case you have songs in WMA file format, you will be prompted to convert those WMA music to AAC. It's really a important step if you need these tunes accessible to play on your iphone .

Convert DRM protected music and songs to mp3 In case your track files are in unprotected WMA (Windows Media Audio) format, Apple iTunes will prompt you if you wish to convert the format. Click "Convert" to begin the process. This process may take a while, especially if you have a large audio library.

But, in case you bought WMA tracks from music store like Yahoo! Music, you will require to strip off DRM from WMA then transfer to iTunes.

There will be two methods to [url=][b]Remove DRM from iTunes 10[/b][/url] in order to enjoy your tracks on portable products.

1. Burn WMA tv shows to CD then convert CD to mp3
You could burn your bought music to a CD, and then import the songs back into your iTunes library, therefore creating FairPlay free tracks. The problem is you get reprocessing songs that is already been processed for compression, and this will definitely hurt your sound quality.

2. Strip off DRM protection with a DRM Removal software
It could record DRM music from your sound card when the music is playing, hence the output quality can be exactly like the original one.

Step-by-step guide
Download DRM converter and install it. The whole DRM conversion will takes only three simple and easy steps.

Step one. start DRM Converter, import you music files by simply clicking 'add video' button, normally you can easily find your iTunes files via C:\My Documents\My music\iTunes (default directory). You can add single file or multiple files.

Step two. Preview selected files on preview area just hitting play button. You have several choices for your output formats. I recommend you go with MP3 for music, MP4 for film and Tv shows. After that select output folder (that should be easy to remember).

Step three. So now, just hit 'Start' button. This DRM Converter will eliminate DRM protection from WMV music effectively.

Tips: This DRM Converter is also a great Video Converter, when you got any video files that is not suitable for iTunes 9, iPod, iPhone, you may also use it to convert video to any formats you need.

Related guide:

How to convert DVD to iTunes 10?

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Saturday, December 22, 2012

The new MacBook Pro notebooks - How to resist your iPad 2 craving

I won't name names, but we have an editor here in the office, who, every time a new Apple product comes out, says he isn't going to get it. He had the iPhone 3GS and said he was going to wait for the iPhone 5 and not get the iPhone 4. Two weeks later, he had the iPhone 4 and had given his 3GS to his wife.

I said, "Dude, where's your discipline?"

"I know, I know," he replied sheepishly. "But I wanted it. I couldn't resist."

He's got an iPad, the original. I know he's going to get an iPad 2, even though he says he isn't. How do I know? Because the moment Steve Jobs got up on stage and showed his first slide, he said, "Gee, that looks pretty nice." He had him at hello.

The iPad 2 Symbol 21-61261-01 batterydidn't look any different from what we expected it to look like--and it didn't look all that different from the original iPad. But suddenly there on stage in the flesh it had taken on a new, irresistible sheen. Not the Charlie kind of Sheen. Just the Apple kind.

"Dude," I said, "Buckle down. You've got a kid, you live in a small, overpriced New York apartment that you can't really afford on your editor's salary. Save your money. You don't need another iPad."

"I know, I know," he muttered again. "But those graphics, the games..." And then he got that I-can-rationalize-this-purchase look in his eyes. It was the look that had sent his older-generation iPhone packing to his wife. Little did she realize she was about to inherit his so-last-year tablet.

I decided there was only one thing to do: tempt him with the future to kill the present temptation. There were other Apple products worth holding out for, I said. Four to be exact. Or four that I could think of anyway.

I offered to write a column about it and put the products in a nice, bullet-pointed list. Like this:

MacBook Air with Intel Sandy Bridge: Sure the iPad 2 is nice, but a lot of Apple lovers have their eyes on the MacBook Air. CNET Editor Dan Ackerman has given the latest-generation Air high marks, saying that despite its limited connectivity options, it's now "powerful enough to use as a mainstream laptop." But there are plenty of folks who think the Air's still a little underpowered and are waiting for it to get a processor upgrade to the Intel Sandy Bridge chips that are now in the new MacBook Pro notebooks.

Sure, some people can afford an iPad 2 Bosch 2 607 335 264 batteryand a next-generation Air, but many can't. And given the choice, if I had an original iPad (which I do), I'd rather take the dough I'd spend on an iPad 2 and apply it toward a next-generation Air, which after all, is a full-fledged machine that supports Flash (yes, truth be told, I'm becoming increasingly irritated that I cannot access Flash content from my iPad).

Of course, the big question is when will Apple upgrade the Air line? It took its time going from gen-1 to gen-2 and I suspect it may be a few months (Brooke Crothers says June), before it gets the performance bump. It's worth the wait, however.

iPhone 5: In June, Apple is due to roll out its fifth-generation iPhone. Rumors have been all over the map, with some suggesting that multiple models will be available and that we might even see Apple go with a larger 4-inch screen and a design more reminiscent of the iPad 2. Opinion is divided over whether it will have true 4G support or not, but the one thing you can rest assured on is that it will have the new dual-core A5 processor in it.

My fellow editor, who owns the iPhone 4, suggested that if he caved and bought the iPad 2, he wouldn't get the next iPhone. I told him, "Wouldn't it be better to wait for the next iPhone before you make that decision?" He grudgingly agreed that I might have a point.

iPad Mini: OK, here's the product I'm personally holding out for. You can call it what you want: A jumbo iPod Touch, an iPad Nano, an iPad Mini, whatever. It's basically Apple's version of the Samsung Galaxy Tab or Barnes & Noble Nook Color. Steve Jobs says going smaller with the iPad has big drawbacks and Apple won't do it, but the fact is, it makes a lot of sense. Critics of tablets with a 7-inch screens describe them as "tweener" devices, but I actually like the form factor of a 7-inch tablet and I expect we'll start seeing a lot more Android tablets in such sizes. I also wouldn't be at all surprised if Apple heads them off at the pass--despite Jobs' claims to the contrary.

Ideally, of course, such a device, if it were to come into being, would start at $300 (for a 16GB version)--and that's probably doable for Apple. As for possible launch dates, I'd target this one to coincide with Apple's launch of its new iPods in September. Just a guess, but with the iPod Panasonic EY9021B batteryTouch pretty full-baked (sure, it could use a high-resolution camera and faster processor, but what else?), it might be a good idea to extend that line to include a larger Touch.

iPad 3: I always argue that when it comes to Apple's mobile products, it's good idea to skip a generation. For what most people are doing with the iPad (e-mail, Web surfing, reading books, streaming video, and playing games like Angry Birds), you can make do just fine for another year with the original iPad. OK, so you won't be able to conduct FaceTime video chats, but it's not the end of the world. You know the next 9.7-inch iPad, which will most likely be released in March 2012, will be thinner, lighter, have a faster process, and a better screen. And you only have to wait 365 days to get it.

Bonus selection: It's worth noting that Apple will eventually add the iPad 2 to its list of refurbished products. In October of last year, Apple started offering refurbished iPads for $50 off, then dropped the price a bit more in December. Now it's offering the original 16GB base model for $350 or $150 off its initial price (of course, you can also go the used route on eBay or Amazon).

My nameless colleague probably won't listen to any of this, of course. In which case I might have to resort to Plan B. Lock him in a room for 24 hours with five Android fanboys. Or at least threaten to lock him in a room with five Android fanboys. That should do the trick.

What do you guys think? Any other upcoming Apple products you'd rather put your money toward instead of an iPad 2? Yeah, I said "Apple products," but if you've got anything else to suggest, I'm game, too.

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Friday, December 21, 2012

Digital Rights Management


DRM technologies attempt to control use of digital media by preventing access, copying or conversion to other formats by end users. Long before the arrival of digital or even electronic media, copyright holders, content producers, or other financially or artistically interested parties had business and legal objections to copying technologies. Examples include: player piano rolls early in the 20th century, audio tape recording, and video tape recording (e.g. the "Betamax case" in the U.S.). Copying technology thus exemplifies a disruptive technology.

The advent of digital media and analog/digital conversion technologies, especially those that are usable on mass-market general-purpose personal computers, has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-dependent individuals and organizations, especially within the music and movie industries, because these individuals and organizations are partly or wholly depe ndent on the revenue generated from such works. While analog media inevitably loses quality with each copy generation, and in some cases even during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality of subsequent copies. The advent of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media (which may or may not be copyrighted) originally in a physical/analog form or a broadcast form into a universal, digital form (this process is called ripping) for location- or timeshifting. This, combined with the Internet and popular file sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media (so-called digital piracy) much easier.

Although technical controls on the reproduction and use of software have been intermittently used since the 1970s, the term 'DRM' has come to primarily mean the use of these measures to control art istic or literary content.[citation needed] DRM technologies have enabled publishers to enforce access policies that not only disallow copyright infringements, but also prevent lawful fair use of copyrighted works, or even implement use constraints on non-copyrighted works that they distribute; examples include the placement of DRM on certain public-domain or open-licensed e-books, or DRM included in consumer electronic devices that time-shift (and apply DRM to) both copyrighted and non-copyrighted works.

DRM is most commonly used by the entertainment industry (e.g. film and recording). Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, as well as many e-book publishers, have imposed DRM on their customers. In recent years, a number of television producers have imposed DRM mandates on consumer electronic devices, to control access to the freely-broadcast content of their shows, in connection with the popularity of time-shifting digital video r ecorder systems such as TiVo.


DRM and film

An early example of a DRM system was the Content Scrambling System (CSS) employed by the DVD Forum on film DVDs since ca. 1996. CSS used a simple encryption algorithm, and required device manufacturers to sign license agreements that restricted the inclusion of features, such as digital outputs that could be used to extract high-quality digital copies of the film, in their players. Thus, the only consumer hardware capable of decoding DVD films was controlled, albeit indirectly, by the DVD Forum, restricting the use of DVD media on other systems until the release of DeCSS by Jon Lech Johansen in 1999, which allowed a CSS-encrypted DVD to play properly on a computer using Linux, for which the Alliance had not arranged a licensed version of the CSS playing software.

Microsoft's Windows Vista contains a DRM system c alled the Protected Media Path, which contains the Protected Video Path (PVP). PVP tries to stop DRM-restricted content from playing while unsigned software is running in order to prevent the unsigned software from accessing the content. Additionally, PVP can encrypt information during transmission to the monitor or the graphics card, which makes it more difficult to make unauthorized recordings.

Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a DRM system for HD DVD and Blu-Ray Discs developed by the AACS Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA), a consortium that includes Disney, Intel, Microsoft, Matsushita (Panasonic), Warner Brothers, IBM, Toshiba and Sony. In December 2006 a process key was published on the internet by hackers, enabling unrestricted access to AACS-restricted HD DVD content. After the cracked keys were revoked, further cracked keys were released.

DRM and television

The CableCard st andard is used by cable television providers in the United States to restrict content to services to which the customer has subscribed.

The broadcast flag concept was developed by Fox Broadcasting in 2001 and was supported by the MPAA and the FCC. A ruling in May 2005 by a US Court of Appeals held that the FCC lacked authority to impose it on the TV industry in the US. It required that all HDTVs obey a stream specification determining whether or not a stream can be recorded. This could block instances of fair use, such as time-shifting. It achieved more success elsewhere when it was adopted by the Digital Video Broadcasting Project (DVB), a consortium of about 250 broadcasters, manufactures, network operators, software developers, and regulatory bodies from about 35 countries involved in attempting to develop new digital TV standards.

An updated variant of the broadcast flag has been developed in the Content Protection an d Copy Management (DVB-CPCM). It was developed in private, and the technical specification was submitted to European governments in March 2007. As with much DRM, the CPCM system is intended to control use of copyrighted material by the end-user, at the direction of the copyright holder. According to Ren Bucholz of the EFF, which paid to be a member of the consortium, "You won't even know ahead of time whether and how you will be able to record and make use of particular programs or devices". The DVB supports the system as it will harmonize copyright holders' control across different technologies and so make things easier for end users. The CPCM system is expected to be submitted to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute in 2008.

DRM and music

Audio CDs

Discs with digital rights management schemes are not legitimately standards-compliant Compact Discs (CDs) but are rather CD-ROM me dia. Therefore they all lack the CD logotype found on discs which follow the standard (known as Red Book). Therefore these CDs could not be played on all CD players. Many consumers could also no longer play purchased CDs on their computers. PCs running Microsoft Windows would sometimes even crash when attempting to play the CDs.

In 2002, Bertelsmann (comprising BMG, Arista, and RCA) was the first corporation to use DRM on audio CDs.[citation needed] In 2005, Sony BMG introduced new DRM technology which installed DRM software on users' computers without clearly notifying the user or requiring confirmation. Among other things, the installed software included a rootkit, which created a severe security vulnerability others could exploit. When the nature of the DRM involved was made public much later, Sony initially minimized the significance of the vulnerabilities its software had created, but was eventually compelled to recall millions of CDs, and rel eased several attempts to patch the surreptitiously included software to at least remove the rootkit. Several class action lawsuits were filed, which were ultimately settled by agreements to provide affected consumers with a cash payout or album downloads free of DRM.

Sony's DRM software actually had only a limited ability to prevent copying, as it affected only playback on Windows computers, not on other equipment. Even on the Windows platform, users regularly bypassed the restrictions. And, while the Sony DRM technology created fundamental vulnerabilities in customers' computers, parts of it could be trivially bypassed by holding down the "shift" key while inserting the CD, or by disabling the autorun feature. In addition, audio tracks could simply be played and re-recorded, thus completely bypassing all of the DRM (this is known as the analog hole). Sony's first two attempts at releasing a patch which would remove the DRM software from users' co mputers failed.

In January 2007, EMI stopped publishing audio CDs with DRM, stating that "the costs of DRM do not measure up to the results." Following EMI, Sony BMG was the last publisher to abolish DRM completely, and audio CDs containing DRM are no longer released by the four record labels.

Internet music

Many online music stores employ DRM to restrict usage of music purchased and downloaded online. There are many options for consumers wishing to purchase digital music over the internet:

The iTunes Store, run by Apple Inc., allows users to purchase a track online for $0.99 US. The tracks purchased use Apple's FairPlay DRM system. Apple later launched iTunes Plus, which offered higher quality DRM-free tracks for a higher price. On October 17, 2007, iTunes Plus became available at the usual $0.99 price, replacing the non-Plus tracks. On January 6, 2009 Apple announce d at its Macworld Expo keynote that iTunes music would be available completely DRM free by the end of the month. Videos sold and rented through iTunes, as well as mobile software sold through the iTunes App Store for the iPhone and iPod touch, continue to use Apple's FairPlay DRM to inhibit casual copying.

Napster music store, which offers a subscription-based approach to DRM alongside permanent purchases. Users of the subscription service can download and stream an unlimited amount of music transcoded to Windows Media Audio (WMA) while subscribed to the service. But when the subscription period lapses, all of the downloaded music is unplayable until the user renews his or her subscription. Napster also charges users who wish to use the music on their portable device an additional $5 per month. In addition, Napster gives users the option of paying an additional $0.99 per track to burn it to CD or for the song to never expire. Music bought through N apster can be played on players carrying the Microsoft PlaysForSure logo (which, notably, do not include iPods or even Microsoft's own Zune). As of June 2009 Napster is giving DRM free MP3 music, which can be played on iPhones and iPods.

Wal-Mart Music Downloads, another online music download store, charges $0.94 per track for all non-sale downloads. All Wal-Mart, Music Downloads are able to be played on any Windows PlaysForSure marked product. The music does play on the SanDisk's Sansa mp3 player, for example, but must be copied to the player's internal memory. It cannot be played through the player's microSD card slot, which is a problem that many users of the mp3 player experience.

Sony operated an online music download service called "Connect" which used Sony's proprietary OpenMG DRM technology. Music downloaded from this store (usually via Sony's SonicStage software) was only playable on computers running Windows and Sony hardware (including the PSP and some Sony Ericsson phones).

Kazaa is one of a few services offering a subscription-based pricing model. However, music downloads from the Kazaa website are DRM-protected, and can only be played on computers or portable devices running Windows Media Player, and only as long as the customer remains subscribed to Kazaa.

The various services are currently not interoperable, though those that use the same DRM system (for instance the several Windows Media DRM format stores, including Napster, Kazaa and Yahoo Music) all provide songs that can be played side-by-side through the same player program. Almost all stores require client software of some sort to be downloaded, and some also need plug-ins. Several colleges and universities, such as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, have made arrangements with assorted Internet music suppliers to provide access (typically DRM-restricted) to music fil es for their students, to less than universal popularity, sometimes making payments from student activity fee funds. One of the problems is that the music becomes unplayable after leaving school unless the student continues to pay individually. Another is that few of these vendors are compatible with the most common portable music player, the Apple iPod. The Gowers Review of Intellectual Property (to HMG in the UK; 141 pages, 40+ specific recommendations) has taken note of the incompatibilities, and suggests (Recommendations 812) that there be explicit fair dealing exceptions to copyright allowing libraries to copy and format-shift between DRM schemes, and further allowing end users to do the same privately. If adopted, some of the acrimony may decrease.

Although DRM is prevalent for Internet music, some online music stores such as eMusic, Dogmazic, Amazon, and Beatport, do not use DRM despite encouraging users to avoid sharing music. Another onlin e retailer,, which sells only unsigned artists, encourages people to share the music they buy from the site, to increase exposure for the artists themselves. Major labels have begun releasing more online music without DRM. Eric Bangeman suggests in Ars Technica that this is because the record labels are "slowly beginning to realize that they can't have DRMed music and complete control over the online music market at the same time... One way to break the cycle is to sell music that is playable on any digital audio player. eMusic does exactly that, and their surprisingly extensive catalog of non-DRMed music has vaulted it into the number two online music store position behind the iTunes Store." Apple's Steve Jobs has called on the music industry to eliminate DRM in an open letter titled Thoughts on Music. Apple's iTunes store will start to sell DRM-free 256 kbit/s (up from 128 kbit/s) AAC encoded music from EMI for a premium price (this has since reverted to the stand ard price). In March 2007,, one of Europe's largest online music retailers, announced their position strongly against DRM. In an open letter, Musicload stated that three out of every four calls to their customer support phone service are as a result of consumer frustration with DRM.

Computer games

Computer games sometimes use DRM technologies to limit the number of systems the game can be installed on by requiring authentication with an online server. Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be 'recovered' when the game is uninstalled. This not only limits users who have more than three or five computers in their homes (seeing as the rights of the software developers allow them to limit the number of installations), but can also prove to be a problem if the user has to unexpectedly perform certain tasks like upgrading operating systems or reformatt ing the computer's hard drive, tasks which, depending on how the DRM is implemented, count a game's subsequent reinstall as a new installation, making the game potentially unusable after a certain period even if it is only used on a single computer.

One of the earliest prominent uses of online-based DRM technology in a AAA title was the result of Valve's decision to bind Half-Life 2 to the Steam platform. This was met with considerable protest from the gaming community and a number of legal challenges were submitted, including consumer groups. In some cases, retail houses were required to attach labels to the front of the game's cases clearly stating that an Internet connection was required to activate the game.[citation needed]

In mid-2008, the publication of Mass Effect marked the start of a wave of titles primarily making use of SecuROM and Steam for DRM and requiring authentication via an online server. The use of DRM scheme in 2008's Spore backfired and there were considerable protest, resulting in a considerable number of users seeking a pirated version instead. This backlash against SecuROM was a significant factor in Spore becoming the most pirated game in 2008.

Many mainstream publishers continued to rely on online-based DRM throughout the later half of 2008 and early 2009, including Electronic Arts, Ubisoft and Atari. Ubisoft broke with the tendency to use online DRM in late 2008 with the release of Prince of Persia as an experiment to "see how truthful people really are" regarding the claim that DRM was inciting people to use pirated copies. Although Ubisoft has not commented on the results of the 'experiment', the majority of their subsequent titles in 2009 contained no online-based DRM since the release of Prince of Persia - notable examples being Anno 1404 and James Cameron's Avatar: The Game making use of the online version of the TAGES copy protecti on system. An official patch has since been released stripping Anno 1404 of the DRM. Electronic Arts followed suit in June 2009 with The Sims 3, with subsequent EA and EA Sports titles also being devoid of online DRM.

Some most prominent cases making use of online DRM technology SecuROM include Spore, BioShock, Mass Effect and Gears Of War.


Electronic books read on a personal computer or an e-book reader typically use DRM restrictions to limit copying, printing, and sharing of e-books. E-books are usually limited to a certain number of reading devices and some e-publishers prevent any copying or printing. Some commentators believe that DRM is something that makes E-book publishing complex.

Two of the most commonly used software programs to view e-books are Adobe Reader and Microsoft Reader. Each program uses a slightly different approach to DRM. The first vers ion of Adobe Acrobat e-book Reader to have encryption technologies was version 5.05. In the later version 6.0, the technologies of the PDF reader and the e-book reader were combined, allowing it to read both DRM-restricted and unrestricted files. After opening the file, the user is able to view the rights statement, which outlines actions available for the specific document. For example, for a freely transferred PDF, printing, copying to the clipboard, and other basic functions are available to the user. However, when viewing a more highly restricted e-book, the user is unable to print the book, copy or paste selections. The level of restriction is specified by the publisher or distribution agency.

Microsoft Reader, which exclusively reads e-books in a .lit format, contains its own DRM software. In Microsoft Reader there are three different levels of access control depending on the e-book: sealed e-books, inscribed e-books and owner exclusive e-boo ks. Sealed e-books have the least amount of restriction and only prevents the document from being modified. Therefore, the reader cannot alter the content of the book to change the ending, for instance. Inscribed e-books are the next level of restriction. After purchasing and downloading the e-book, Microsoft Reader puts a digital ID tag to identify the owner of the e-book. Therefore, this discourages distribution of the e-book because it is inscribed with the owner name making it possible to trace it back to the original copy that was distributed. Other e-book software uses similar DRM schemes. For example, Palm Digital Media, now known as Ereader, links the credit card information of the purchaser to the e-book copy in order to discourage distribution of the books.

The most stringent form of security that Microsoft Reader offers is called owner exclusive e-books, which uses traditional DRM technologies. To buy the e-book the consumer must first o pen Microsoft Reader, which ensures that when the book is downloaded it becomes linked to the computer Microsoft Passport account. Thus the e-book can only be opened with the computer with which it was downloaded, preventing copying and distribution of the text. has remotely deleted purchased copies of George Orwell's 1984 and Animal Farm from customer's Amazon Kindles. Commenters have widely described these actions as Orwellian, and have alluded to Big Brother from Orwell's 1984. After an apology from Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos, the Free Software Foundation has written that this is just one more example of the excessive power Amazon has to remotely censor what people read through its software, and called upon Amazon to free its e-book reader and drop DRM.

DRM and documents

Enterprise digital rights management (E-DRM or ERM) is the application of DRM technology to the control of access to corporate documents such as Microsoft Word, PDF, and AutoCAD files, emails, and intranet web pages rather than to the control of consumer media. E-DRM, now more commonly referenced as IRM (Information Rights Management), is generally intended to prevent the unauthorized use (such as industrial or corporate espionage or inadvertent release) of proprietary documents. IRM typically integrates with content management system software.

DRM has been used by organizations such as the British Library in its secure electronic delivery service to permit worldwide access to substantial numbers of rare (and in many cases unique) documents which, for legal reasons, were previously only available to authorized individuals actually visiting the Library's document centre at Boston Spa in England.[citation needed]


Digital watermarks are unobtrusive features of media that are added during production or distribution. Digital watermarks involve data that is arguably steganographically embedded within the audio or video data.

Watermarks can be used for different purposes that may include:

for recording the copyright owner

for recording the distributor

for recording the distribution chain

for identifying the purchaser of the music

Watermarks are not complete DRM mechanisms in their own right, but are used as part of a system for Digital Rights Management, such as helping provide prosecution evidence for purely legal avenues of rights management, rather than direct technological restriction. Some programs used to edit video and/or audio may distort, delete, or otherwise interfere with watermarks. Signal/modulator-carrier chromatography may also separate watermarks from original audio or detect them as glitches. Use of third party media players and other advanced programs render watermarking useless. Additionally, comparison of two separately obtained copies of audio using simple, home-grown algorithms can often reveal watermarks. New methods of detection are currently under investigation by both industry and non-industry researchers.


Sometimes, metadata is included in purchased music w hich records information such as the purchaser's name, account information, or email address. This information is not embedded in the played audio or video data, like a watermark, but is kept separate, but within the file or stream.

As an example, metadata is used in media purchased from Apple's iTunes Store for DRM-free as well as DRM-restricted versions of their music or videos. This information is included as MPEG standard metadata.

Table of DRM technologies and associated devices


Used In

Date of Use


DRM Schemes Currently in Use

Personal computer DRM

Windows Media DRM

Many Online Video Distribution Networks


WMV DRM is designed to provide secure delivery of audio and/or video content over an IP network to a PC or other playback device in such a way that the distributor can control how that content is used.


The iTunes Store, iPod


Purchased music files were encoded as AAC, then encrypted with an additional format that renders the file exclusively compatible with iTunes and the iPod. On January 6 2009, Apple announced that the iTunes Store would begin offering all songs DRM-free.

Helix & Harmony

Real Networks services


A DRM system from Real Networks intended to be interoperable with other DRM schemes, particularly FairPlay. Ultimately used only by Real Networks.


Enterprise, business, networking , financial, telecom and consumer applications


Restriction for applications written in Java, .Net or C/C++ on Windows, Linux, Solaris and Mac

Excel Software

Business, educational, government and consumer applications


Protection for Mac and Windows applications, plugins, DLLs, multimedia and documents with manual and automated activation, trial and perpetual licenses, software subscriptions, floating and dynamic licenses, network floating licenses and user friendly license release, restore, suspend and automated feature delivery.

Adobe Protected Streaming

Flash Video/Audio Streaming


The Media-Streams are encrypted "on the fly" by the Flash Media Server (the protocol used is rtmpe or rtmps). I n addition the client player can be verified via "SWF-Verification", to make sure that only the official client can be used.


Computers, Mobile and Portable Devices


PlayReady is designed to encrypt WMA, WMV, AAC, AAC+, enhanced AAC+, and H.263 and H.264 codecs files. PlayReady is actually a new version of Windows Media DRM for Silverlight. Silverlight 2-based online content can be restricted using PlayReady and played back via the Silverlight plug-in. PlayReady is promoted by Microsoft

Portable device DRM


All PlaysForSure Devices


Janus is the codename for a portable version of Windows Media DRM intended portable devices.


Implemented in over 550 phone models.


A DRM system invented by the Open Mobile Alliance to control copying of cell phone ring tones. Also used to control access to media files, such as video.

Storage media DRM

VHS Macrovision

Almost all VHS Video through the end of the 20th Century


When dubbing a Macrovision-encoded tape, a video stream which has passed through the recording VCR will become dark and then normal again periodically, degrading quality. The picture may also become unstable when darkest.

Content-scrambling system (CSS)

Some DVD Discs


CSS utilizes a weak, 40-bit stream cipher to actively encrypt DVD-Video.

DVD Region Code

Some DVD Discs


Many DVD-Video discs contain one or more region codes, marking those area[s] of the world in which playback is permitted. This restriction enforces artificial market segmentation.

ARccOS Protection

Some DVD Discs


Adds corrupt data sectors to the DVD, preventing computer software implementing computer standards from successfully reading the media. DVD players execute the on-disk program which skips the (corrupt) ARccOS sectors.


ATRAC audio devices (e.g., MiniDisc players), Memory Stick based audio players, AnyMusic distribution service


A proprietary DRM system invented and promoted by Sony.


Blu-ray Discs


A virtual machine embedded in authorized Blu-ray players that runs a security check on the playback environment to ensure that it has not been compromised. It also performs necessary descrambling of the audio/video stream on discs, allowing the content to be rendered.

DRM Schemes no Longer in Use

Extended Copy Protection

Sony and BMG CDs


Also known as the 'Sony Rootkit'. Although not classified as a virus by many anti-virus software producers, it bore many virus-like and trojan-like characteristics, rendering it illegal in some places and dangerous to infected computers in all. After it became publicly known, protests and litigation resulted in withdrawal by Sony. The US litigation was settled by payment by Sony.

Laws regarding DRM

D igital rights management systems have received some international legal backing by implementation of the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT). Article 11 of the Treaty requires nations party to the treaties to enact laws against DRM circumvention.

The WCT has been implemented in most member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization. The American implementation is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), while in Europe the treaty has been implemented by the 2001 European directive on copyright, which requires member states of the European Union to implement legal protections for technological prevention measures. In 2006[update], the lower house of the French parliament adopted such legislation as part of the controversial DADVSI law, but added that protected DRM techniques should be made interoperable, a move which caused widespread controversy in the United States.

Digital Millennium Copyright Act

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Main article: Digital Millennium Copyright Act

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is an extension to United States copyright law passed unanimously on May 14, 1998, which criminalizes the production and dissemination of technology that allows users to circumvent technical copy-restriction methods. Under the Act, circumvention of a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work is illegal if done with the primary intent of violating the rights of copyright holders. (For a more detailed analysis of the statute, see WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act.)

Reverse engineering of existing systems is expressly permitted under the Act under specific conditions. Under the reverse engineering safe harbor, circumvention necessary to achieve interoperability with other software is specifically authorized. See 17 U.S.C. Sec. 1201(f). Open-source softwa re to decrypt content scrambled with the Content Scrambling System and other encryption techniques presents an intractable problem with the application of the Act. Much depends on the intent of the actor. If the decryption is done for the purpose of achieving interoperability of open source operating systems with proprietary operating systems, the circumvention would be protected by Section 1201(f) the Act. Cf., Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001) at notes 5 and 16. However, dissemination of such software for the purpose of violating or encouraging others to violate copyrights has been held illegal. See Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes, 111 F. Supp. 2d 346 (S.D.N.Y. 2000).

On 22 May 2001, the European Union passed the EU Copyright Directive, an implementation of the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty that addressed many of the same issues as the DMCA.

The DMCA has been largely ineffective in protecting DRM systems,[citation needed] as software allowing users to circumvent DRM remains widely available. However, those who wish to preserve the DRM systems have attempted to use the Act to restrict the distribution and development of such software, as in the case of DeCSS.

Although the Act contains an exception for research, the exception is subject to vague qualifiers that do little to reassure researchers. Cf., 17 U.S.C. Sec. 1201(g). The DMCA has had an impact on cryptography, because many fear that cryptanalytic research may violate the DMCA. The arrest of Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov in 2001, for alleged infringement of the DMCA, was a highly publicized example of the law's use to prevent or penalize development of anti-DRM measures. Sklyarov was arrested in the United States after a presentation at DEF CON, and subsequently spent several months in jail. The DMCA has also been cited as chilling to non-criminal inclined users, such as students of cryptanalysis (including, in a well-known instance, Professor Felten and students at Princeton), and security consultants such as the Netherlands based Niels Ferguson, who has declined to publish information about vulnerabilities he discovered in an Intel secure-computing scheme because of his concern about being arrested under the DMCA when he travels to the US.

On 25 April 2007 the European Parliament supported the first directive of EU, which aims to harmonize criminal law in the member states. It adopted a first reading report on harmonizing the national measures for fighting copyright abuse. If the European Parliament and the Council approve the legislation, the submitted directive will oblige the member states to consider a crime a violation of international copyright committed with commercial purposes. The text suggests numerous measures: from fines to imprisonment, depending on the gravity of the offense.

The EP members supported the Commission motion, changing some of the texts. They excluded patent rights from the range of the directive and decided that the sanctions should apply only to offenses with commercial purposes. Copying for personal, non-commercial purposes was also excluded from the range of the directive.

International issues

In Europe, there are several ongoing dialog activities that are characterized by their consensus-building intention:

Workshop on Digital Rights Management of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), January 2001.

Participative preparation of the European Committee for Standardization/Information Society Standardisation System (CEN/ISSS) DRM Report, 2003 (finished).

DRM Workshops of Directorate-General for Information Society and Media (European Commission) (finished), and the work of the DRM worki ng groups (finished), as well as the work of the High Level Group on DRM (ongoing).

Consultation process of the European Commission, DG Internal Market, on the Communication COM(2004)261 by the European Commission on "Management of Copyright and Related Rights" (closed).

The INDICARE project is an ongoing dialogue on consumer acceptability of DRM solutions in Europe. It is an open and neutral platform for exchange of facts and opinions, mainly based on articles by authors from science and practice.

The AXMEDIS project is a European Commission Integrated Project of the FP6. The main goal of AXMEDIS is automating the content production, copy protection and distribution, reducing the related costs and supporting DRM at both B2B and B2C areas harmonising them.

The Gowers Review of Intellectual Property is the result of a commission by the British Government from Andrew G owers, undertaken in December 2005 and published in 2006, with recommendations regarding copyright term, exceptions, orphaned works, and copyright enforcement.

The European Community was expected to produce a recommendation on DRM in 2006, phasing out the use of levies (compensation to rights holders charged on media sales for lost revenue due to unauthorized copying) given the advances in DRM/TPM technology. However, opposition from the member states, particularly France, have now made it unlikely that the recommendation will be adopted.[citation needed]


DRM opposition

A parody on the Home Taping Is Killing Music logo.

Many organizations, prominent individuals, and computer scientists are opposed to DRM. Two notable DRM critics are John Walker, as expressed for instance, in his article The Digital Imprimatur: How big brother an d big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle, and Richard Stallman in his article The Right to Read and in other public statements: "DRM is an example of a malicious feature - a feature designed to hurt the user of the software, and therefore, it's something for which there can never be toleration". Professor Ross Anderson of Cambridge University heads a British organization which opposes DRM and similar efforts in the UK and elsewhere. Cory Doctorow, a prominent writer and technology blogger, spoke on the Microsoft campus criticizing the technology, the morality, and the marketing of DRM.

There have been numerous others who see DRM at a more fundamental level. argues that DRM-free music allows for viral marketing, arguing that independent artists benefit from "free marketing" and can then focus on revenues from higher margin products like merchandise and concert ticket sales. This is similar to some of the ideas in Mic hael H. Goldhaber's presentation about "The Attention Economy and the Net" at a 1997 conference on the "Economics of Digital Information." (sample quote from the "Advice for the Transition" section of that presentation: "If you can't figure out how to afford it without charging, you may be doing something wrong.")

The Electronic Frontier Foundation and similar organizations such as also hold positions which are characterized as opposed to DRM.

The Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure has criticized DRM's impact as a trade barrier from a free market perspective.

The final version of the GNU General Public License version 3, as released by the Free Software Foundation, has a provision that 'strips' DRM of its legal value, so people can break the DRM on GPL software without breaking laws like the DMCA. Also, in May 2006, the FSF launched a "Defective by Design" campaign against DRM.

Creative Commons provides licensing options encouraging the expansion of and building upon creative work without the use of DRM. In addition, the use of a Creative Commons-licensed work on a device which incorporates DRM is a breach of the Baseline Rights asserted by each license.

Bill Gates spoke about DRM at CES in 2006. According to him, DRM is not where it should be, and causes problems for legitimate consumers while trying to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate users.

According to Steve Jobs, Apple opposes DRM music after a public letter calling its music labels to stop requiring DRM on its iTunes Store. As of January 6, 2009, the iTunes Store is DRM-free for songs. However, Apple considers DRM on video content as a separate issue and has not removed DRM from all of its video catalog.

Defective by Design member protesting DRM on May 25, 20 07.

As already noted, many DRM opponents consider "digital rights management" to be a misnomer. They argue that DRM manages rights (or access) the same way prison manages freedom and often refer to it as "digital restrictions management". Alternatively, ZDNet Executive Editor David Berlind suggests the term "Content Restriction, Annulment and Protection" or "CRAP" for short.

The Norwegian Consumer rights organization "Forbrukerrdet" complained to Apple Inc. in 2007 about the company's use of DRM in, and in conjunction with, its iPod and iTunes products. Apple was accused of restricting users' access to their music and videos in an unlawful way, and of using EULAs which conflict with Norwegian consumer legislation. The complaint was supported by consumers' ombudsmen in Sweden and Denmark, and is currently being reviewed in the EU. Similarly, the United States Federal Trade Commission is planning to hold hearings in March o f 2009 to review disclosure of DRM limitations to customers' use of media products.

The use of DRM may also be a barrier to future historians, since technologies designed to permit data to be read only on particular machines, or with particular keys, or for certain periods, may well make future data recovery impossible see Digital Revolution. This argument connects the issue of DRM with that of asset management and archive technology.[citation needed]

DRM opponents argue that the presence of DRM violates existing private property rights and restricts a range of heretofore normal and legal user activities. A DRM component would control a device a user owns (such as a Digital audio player) by restricting how it may act with regards to certain content, overriding some of the user's wishes (for example, preventing the user from burning a copyrighted song to CD as part of a compilation or a review). An example of this effect m ay be seen in Microsoft's Windows Vista operating system in which content is disabled or degraded depending on the DRM scheme's evaluation of whether the hardware and its use are 'secure'. All forms of DRM depend on the DRM enabled device (e.g., computer, DVD player, TV) imposing restrictions that (at least by intent) cannot be disabled or modified by the user. Key issues around digital rights management such the right to make personal copies, provisions for persons to lend copies to friends, provisions for service discontinuance, hardware agnosticism, contracts for public libraries, and customers protection against one-side amendments of the contract by the publisher have not been fully addressed.[citation needed] It has also been pointed out that it is entirely unclear whether owners of content with DRM are legally permitted to pass on their property as inheritance to another person.

Tools like FairUse4WM have been created to strip Windows Media of DRM restrictions.

Valve Corporation President Gabe Newell also stated "most DRM strategies are just dumb" because they only decrease the value of a game in the consumer's eyes. Newell's suggests pairing DRM with "[creating] greater value for customers through service value", and stopped short of repudiating Valve's DRM system, known as Steam. However, Mr. Newell's anti-DRM rhetoric flies in the face of Steam's own copy-protection strategy, which is actually a form of DRM.


Due to the strong opposition that exists to DRM, many companies and artists have begun advertising their products as "DRM-Free".

Most notably, Apple began selling "DRM-Free" music through their iTunes store in April 2007. It was later revealed that the DRM-Free iTunes files were still embedded with each user's account information, a technique called Digital watermarking generally not re garded as DRM. In January 2009, iTunes began marketing all of their songs as "DRM-Free", however iTunes continues to use DRM on movies, TV shows, ringtones, and audiobooks.

Impossible task

The famous cryptographer and security guru Bruce Schneier has written about the futility of digital copy prevention and says it's an impossible task. He says "What the entertainment industry is trying to do is to use technology to contradict that natural law. They want a practical way to make copying hard enough to save their existing business. But they are doomed to fail." He has also described trying to make digital files uncopyable as being like "trying to make water not wet".

Both the Association for Computing Machinery and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers have historically opposed DRM, even going so far as to name AACS as a technology "most likely to fail" in an issue of IEEE Spectru m.


Methods to bypass DRM

There are many methods to bypass DRM control on audio and video content.

One simple method to bypass DRM on audio files is to burn the content to an audio CD and then rip it into DRM-free files. This is only possible when the software that plays these DRM-restricted audio files allows CD-burning. Some software products simplify and automate this burn-rip process by allowing the user to burn music to a CD-RW disc or to a Virtual CD-R drive, then automatically ripping and encoding the music, and automatically repeating this process until all selected music has been converted, rather than forcing the user to do this one CD (7280 minutes worth of music) at a time.

Many software programs have been developed that intercept the data stream as it is decrypted out of the DRM-restricted file, and then use this da ta to construct a DRM-free file. These programs require a decryption key. Programs that do this for DVDs, HD DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs include universal decryption keys in the software itself. Programs that do this for TiVo ToGo recordings, iTunes audio, and PlaysForSure songs, however, rely on the user's own key that is, they can only process content that the user has legally acquired under his or her own account.

Another method is to use software to record the signals being sent through the audio or video cards, or to plug analog recording devices into the analog outputs of the media player. These techniques utilize the so-called "analog hole" (see below).

Analog hole

Main article: Analog hole

All forms of DRM for audio and visual material (excluding interactive materials, e.g. videogames) are subject to the analog hole, namely that in order for a viewer to play the m aterial, the digital signal must be turned into an analog signal containing light and/or sound for the viewer, and so available to be copied as no DRM is capable of controlling content in this form. In other words, a user could play a purchased audio file while using a separate program to record the sound back into the computer into a DRM-free file format.

All DRM to date can therefore be bypassed by recording this signal and digitally storing and distributing it in a non DRM limited form, by anyone who has the technical means of recording the analog stream. However the conversion from digital to analog and back is likely to force a loss of quality, particularly when using lossy digital formats. HDCP is an attempt to restrict the analog hole, although it is largely ineffective.

Asus released a soundcard which features a function called "Analog Loopback Transformation" to bypass the restrictions of DRM. This feature allows the user to record DRM-restricted audio via the soundcard's built-in analog I/O connection.

DRM on general computing platforms

Many of the DRM systems in use are designed to work on general purpose computing hardware, such as desktop PCs apparently because this equipment is felt to be a major contributor to revenue loss from disallowed copying. Large commercial copyright infringers ("pirates") avoid consumer equipment, so losses from such infringers will not be covered by such provisions.

It has been hypothesized that such schemes, especially software based ones, can never be wholly secure since the software must include all the information necessary to decrypt the content, such as the decryption keys. An attacker will be able to extract this information, directly decrypt and copy the content, which bypasses the restrictions imposed by a DRM system.

DRM on purpose-b uilt hardware

Many DRM schemes use encrypted media which requires purpose-built hardware to hear or see the content. This appears to ensure that only licensed users (those with the hardware) can access the content. It additionally tries to protect a secret decryption key from the users of the system.

While this in principle can work, it is extremely difficult to build the hardware to protect the secret key against a sufficiently determined adversary. Many such systems have failed in the field. Once the secret key is known, building a version of the hardware that performs no checks is often relatively straightforward. In addition user verification provisions are frequently subject to attack, pirate decryption being among the most frequented ones.

A common real-world example can be found in commercial direct broadcast satellite television systems such as DirecTV. The company uses tamper-resistant smart cards to store decryption keys so that they are hidden from the user and the satellite receiver. However, the system has been compromised in the past, and DirecTV has been forced to roll out periodic updates and replacements for its smart cards.


Watermarks can be removed, although degradation of video or audio can occur. In particular, lossy compression methods only retain perceptible features of an image, and if the watermarks are invisible, they are typically removed by compression systems as a side-effect.[citation needed]

Mass piracy failure

Mass piracy of hard copies does not necessarily need DRM to be decrypted or removed, as it can be achieved by bit-perfect copying of a legally obtained medium without accessing the decrypted content. Additionally, still-encrypted disk images can be distributed over the Internet and played on legitimately lice nsed players. Other copy protection methods, such as specific data layout on the medium, perform better in this area.[citation needed]


When standards and formats change, it may be difficult to transfer DRM-restricted content to new media. Additionally, any system that requires contact with an authentication server is vulnerable to that server becoming unavailable, as happened in 2007 when videos purchased from Major League Baseball ( prior to 2006 became unplayable due to a change to the servers that validate the licences.

Microsoft Zune - When Microsoft introduced their Zune media player in 2006, it did not support content that uses Microsoft's own PlaysForSure DRM scheme they had previously been selling. The EFF calls this "a raw deal".

MSN Music - In April 2008, Microsoft sent an email to former customers of the now-defunct MSN Music store: "As of August 31, 2008, we will no longer be able to support the retrieval of license keys for the songs you purchased from MSN Music or the authorization of additional computers. You will need to obtain a license key for each of your songs downloaded from MSN Music on any new computer, and you must do so before August 31, 2008. If you attempt to transfer your songs to additional computers after August 31, 2008, those songs will not successfully play."

However, to avoid a public relations disaster, Microsoft re-issued MSN Music shutdown statement on June 19th and allowed the users to use their licenses until the end of 2011: "After careful consideration, Microsoft has decided to continue to support the authorization of new computers and devices and delivery of new license keys for MSN Music customers through at least the end of 2011, after which we will evaluate how much this functionality is still being used and what steps should be taken next to sup port our customers. This means you will continue to be able to listen to your purchased music and transfer your music to new PCs and devices beyond the previously announced August 31, 2008 date."

Yahoo! Music Store - On July 23, 2008, the Yahoo! Music Store emailed its customers to tell them it will be shutting down effective September 30, 2008 and the DRM license key servers will be taken offline.

Walmart - In August 2007, Walmart's online music division started offering (DRM-free) MP3s as an option. Starting in February 2008, they made all sales DRM-free. On September 26, 2008, the Walmart Music Team notified its customers via email they would will be shutting down their DRM servers October 9, 2008 and any DRM-encumbered music acquired from them will no longer be accessible unless ripped to a non-DRM format before that date.

After bad press and negative reaction from customers, on October 9, 2 008, Walmart decided not to take its DRM servers offline.

Fictionwise / Overdrive - In January 2009, OverDrive informed Fictionwise that they would no longer be providing downloads for purchasers of e-books through Fictionwise as of 31 January 2009. No reason was provided to Fictionwise as to why they were being shut down. This prevents previous purchasers from being able to renew their books on new devices. Fictionwise is working to provide replacement ebooks for its customers in alternative, non-DRM formats, but does not have the rights to provide all of the books in different formats.

Ads for Adobe PDF - Also in January 2009, Adobe Systems announced that as of March 2009 they would no longer operate the servers that served ads to their PDF reader. Depending on the restriction settings used when PDF documents were created, they may no longer be readable.

Historical note

A very early implementation of DRM was the Software Service System (SSS) devised by the Japanese engineer Ryoichi Mori in 1983 and subsequently refined under the name superdistribution. The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and also enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder. The underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be completely unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would actually be encouraged to do so.

See also

Computer Science portal

Related concepts

Compliance and Robustness




Data room

Hardware restrictions


Privacy enhancing technologies

Product activation

Smart contracts

Smart Cow Problem

Street Performer Protocol



Trusted Computing

Voluntary Collective Licensing



European Information, Communications and Consumer Electronics Technology Industry Associations

Trusted Computing Group

Motion Picture Association of America

Recording Industry Association of America

Electronic Frontier Foundation

Open Rights Group

Open Mobile Alliance

Defective by Design, a campaign of the Free Software Foundation

Pirate Party, a Swedish political party which is a proponent of free culture and free knowledge

Free Software Foundation Europe

Secure Digital Music Initiative

Open Entertainment Alliance


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